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Latin Tables

Latin Tables

I wanted a succinct reference for conjugations, declensions, etc., which was mostly in tabular form, but I couldn't find it on the internet. So I made this.

Nouns and Adjectives

The declension of a noun is distinguished by its genitive singular ending. The nominative and accusative forms of a number for a neuter noun are always the same.

First Declension Nouns
CaseSingularPlural
Nominative-a-ae
Genitive-ae-ārum
Dative-ae-īs
Accusative-am-ās
Ablative-īs
ō

The majority of first declension nouns are feminine, but even masculine/neuter first declension nouns follow the exact same paradigm.

Second Declension Nouns
MasculineNeuter
CaseSingularPluralSingularPlural
N-us-um-a
G-ōrum-ōrum
D-īs-īs
Ac-um-ōs-um-a
Ab-īs-īs

Occasionally, there is a different ending for the masculine nominative singular, like -r or -er. The few feminine second declension nouns are declined in the masculin paradigm

Third Declension Nouns
Masc./Fem.Neuter
CaseSingularPluralSingularPlural
N---ēs---a (-ia)
G-is-um (-ium)-is-um (-ium)
D-ibus-ibus
Ac-em-ēs---a (-ia)
Ab-e-ibus-e (-ī)-ibus

Third declension i-stem nouns take the forms in parentheses. (An alternate form for masculine/feminine accusative plural i-stems is -īs, but this is uncommon.)

Fourth Declension Nouns
CaseSingularPlural
N-us-ūs
G-ūs-uum
D-uī-ibus
Ac-um-ūs
Ab-ibus

Most nouns ending in -us in this declension are masculine; the ones which aren't masculine are feminine and follow the same paradigm. Neuter nouns in this declension take -ū in the nominative, dative, and accusative singular; they also take -ua in the nominative and accusative plural.

Fifth Declension Nouns
CaseSingularPlural
N-ēs-ēs
G-eī-ērum
D-eī-ēbus
Ac-em-ēs
Ab-ēbus

Most fifth declension nouns are feminine.

First-second declension adjectives take the endings of the first declension in the feminine and those of the second declension in masculine/neuter. Third declension adjectives use the endings of the third declension i-stem forms. (For three-termination third declension adjectives, there is a separate nominative singular feminine form.) There are no other varieties of adjectives.

Demonstrative Adjectives

The proximate, emphatic demonstrative adjective in Latin is hic/haec/hoc. It is declined as follows.

Hic, haec, hoc (proximate, emphatic, “this”)
SingularPlural
CaseMasc.Fem.Neut.Masc.Fem.Neut.
Nhichaechochaehaec
Ghuiushuiushuiushōrumhārumhōrum
Dhuichuichuichīshīshīs
Achunchanchochōshāshaec
Abhōchāchōchīshīshīs

The distal, emphatic demonstrative adjective is ille/illa/illud.

Ille, illa, illud (distal, emphatic, “that”)
SingularPlural
CaseMasc.Fem.Neut.Masc.Fem.Neut.
Nilleillailludillīillaeilla
Gillīusillīusillīusillōrumillārumillōrum
Dillīillīillīillīsillīsillīs
Acillumillamilludillōsillāsilla
Abillōillāillōillīsillīsillīs

The unemphatic demonstrative adjective is is/ea/id. When used substantively, it is often translated as a third-person bare pronoun (he/she/it, etc.).

Is, ea, id (unemphatic, “this/that”)
SingularPlural
CaseMasc.Fem.Neut.Masc.Fem.Neut.
Niseaideī, iīeaeea
Geiuseiuseiuseōrumeārumeōrum
Deīs, iīseīs, iīseīs, iīs
Aceumeamideōseāseo
Abeīs, iīseīs, iīseīs, iīs

Personal Pronouns

For I/me, Latin starts with ego. The words nostrum and vestrum are used partitively, while nostri and vestri are used objectively.

Ego (“I”)
CaseSingularPlural
Negonōs
Gmeīnostrum, nostrī
Dmihinōbīs
Acnōs
Abnōbīs

Latin has no exact equivalent for third-person personal pronouns but as above, is/ea/id is often used. For reflexive use, which almost always refers back to the subject of a sentence, one uses the reflexive pronouns.

Case
N--
Gsuī
Dsibi
Ac
Ab

For posession, Latin uses the genitive in the third person, except when reflexive in which case it uses the first/second declension adjective suus, -a, -um. In the first and second persons, it uses the adjectives meus, -a, -um; noster, nostra, nostrum; tuus, -a, -um; and vester, vestra, vestrum.

Relative pronouns

The Latin versions of relative pronouns (who, whom, which (that, but relatively and not demonstratively)) are declined as follows. These relative pronouns are also occasionally used at the beginning of sentences where English would use a demonstrative or personal pronoun. In these cases, the antecedents of these pronouns are in the previous sentences and the relatives are used for the sake of continuity.

Relative Pronouns
SingularPlural
CaseMasc.Fem.Neut.Masc.Fem.Neut.
Nquīquaequodquīquaequae
Gcuiuscuiuscuiusquōrumquārumquōrum
Dcuicuicuiquibusquibusquibus
Acquemquamquodquōsquāsquae
Abquōquāquōquibusquibusquibus

Interrogative Pronoun

Interrogative pronouns are used to introduce a question (who, what, whom in English always substatively, for adjectival forms, these are the same as the relative pronouns). In the plural, they are the same as the relative pronouns. In the singular, they are slightly different as follows.

Interrogative Pronouns
CaseMasc/FemNeuter
Nquisquid
Gcuiuscuius
Dcuicui
Acquemquid
Abquōquō

Verbs

Verbs are distinguished into conjugations by looking at the ending of their infinitive. They are, respectively, -āre, -ēre, -ere, and -īre. Certain verbs of the third conjugation are -i stem verbs, which are distinguished by the ending -iō in the first person singular present active indicative.

For verbs in every conjugation and tense, verbs in the imperfect system, which is to say the present, imperfect, and future, are built on the infinitive stem, which is the infinitive without its ending. Verb

Active Indicative

Present Active Indicative
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing. -eō -iō -iō
2nd -ās -ēs -is -īs -is
3rd -at -et -it -it -it
1st Pl. -āmus-ēmus-imus-īmus-imus
2nd -ātis-ētis-itis-ītis-itis
3rd -ant -ent -unt -iunt-unt
Imperfect Active Indicative
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-ābam -ēbam -ēbam -iēbam -iēbam
2nd -ābās -ēbās -ēbās -iēbās -iēbās
3rd -ābat -ēbat -ēbat -iēbat -iēbat
1st Pl. -ābāmus-ēbāmus-ēbāmus-iēbāmus-iēbāmus
2nd -ābātis-ēbātis-ēbātis-iēbātis-iēbātis
3rd -ābant -ēbant -ēbant -iēbant -iēbant
Future Active Indicative
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-ābō -ēbō -am -iam -iam
2nd -ābis -ēbis -ēs -iēs -iēs
3rd -ābit -ēbit -et -iet -iet
1st Pl. -ābimus-ēbimus-ēmus-iēmus-iēmus
2nd -ābitis-ēbitis-ētis-iētis-iētis
3rd -ābunt -ēbunt -ent -ient -ient
Perfect Active Indicative
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.
2nd -istī -istī -istī -isti -isti
3rd -it -it -it -it -it
1st Pl. -imus -imus -imus -imus -imus
2nd -istis-istis-istis-istis-istis
3rd -ērunt-ērunt-ērunt-ērunt-ērunt
Pluperfect Active Indicative
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-eram -eram -eram -eram -eram
2nd -erās -erās -erās -erās -erās
3rd -erat -erat -erat -erat -erat
1st Pl. -erāmus-erāmus-erāmus-erāmus-erāmus
2nd -erātis-erātis-erātis-erātis-erātis
3rd -erant -erant -erant -erant -erant
Future Perfect Active Indicative
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-erō -erō -erō -erō -erō
2nd -eris -eris -eris -eris -eris
3rd -erit -erit -erit -erit -erit
1st Pl. -erimus-erimus-erimus-erimus-erimus
2nd -eritis-eritis-eritis-eritis-eritis
3rd -erint -erint -erint -erint -erint

Active Subjunctive

Present Active Subjunctive
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-em -eam -am -iam -iam
2nd -ēs -eās -ās -iās -iās
3rd -et -eat -at -iāt -iat
1st Pl. -ēmus-eāmus-āmus-iāmus-iāmus
2nd -ētis-eātis-ātis-iātis-iātis
3rd -ent -eant -ant -iant -iant
Imperfect Active Subjunctive
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-ārem -ērem -erem -īrem -erem
2nd -ārēs -ērēs -erēs -īrēs -erēs
3rd -āret -ēret -eret -īret -eret
1st Pl. -ārēmus-ērēmus-erēmus-īrēmus-erēmus
2nd -ārētis-ērētis-erētis-īrētis-erētis
3rd -ārent -ērent -erent -īrent -erent
Perfect Active Subjunctive
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-erim -erim -erim -erim -erim
2nd -eris -eris -eris -eris -eris
3rd -erit -erit -erit -erit -erit
1st Pl. -erīmus-erīmus-erīmus-erīmus-erīmus
2nd -erītis-erītis-erītis-erītis-erītis
3rd -erint -erint -erint -erint -erint
Pluperfect Active Subjunctive
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-issem -issem -issem -issem -issem
2nd -issēs -issēs -issēs -issēs -issēs
3rd -isset -isset -isset -isset -isset
1st Pl. -issēmus-issēmus-issēmus-issēmus-issēmus
2nd -issētis-issētis-issētis-issētis-issētis
3rd -issent -issent -issent -issent -issent

Passive Indicative

Present Passive Indicative
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-or -eor -or -ior -ior
2nd -āris -ēris -eris -īris -eris
3rd -ātur -ētur -itur -ītur -itur
1st Pl. -āmur -ēmur -imur -īmur -imur
2nd -āminī-ēminī-iminī-īminī -iminī
3rd -antur-entur-untur-iuntur-iuntur
Imperfect Passive Indicative
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-ābar -ēbar -ēbar -iēbar -iēbar
2nd -ābāris -ēbāris -ēbāris -iēbāris -iēbāris
3rd -ābātur -ēbātur -ēbātur -iēbātur -iēbat
1st Pl. -ābāmur -ēbāmur -ēbāmur -iēbāmur -iēbāmur
2nd -ābāminī-ēbāminī-ēbāminī-iēbāminī-iēbāminī
3rd -ābantur-ēbantur-ēbantur-iēbantur-iēbantur
Future Passive Indicative
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-ābor -ēbor -ar -iar -iar
2nd -āberis -ēberis -ēris -iēris -iēris
3rd -ābitur -ēbitur -ētur -iētur -iētur
1st Pl. -ābimur-ēbimur -ēmur -iēmur -iēmur
2nd -ābiminī-ēbiminī-ēminī-iēminī-iēminī
3rd -ābuntur-ēbuntur-entur-ientur-ientur

Passive Subjunctive

Present Passive Subjunctive
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-em -eam -am -iam -iam
2nd -ēs -eās -ās -iās -iās
3rd -et -eat -at -iāt -iat
1st Pl. -ēmus-eāmus-āmus-iāmus-iāmus
2nd -ētis-eātis-ātis-iātis-iātis
3rd -ent -eant -ant -iant -iant
Imperfect Passive Subjunctive
Person -āre -ēre -ere -īre -ere i-stem
1st Sing.-ārer -ērer -erer -īrer -erer
2nd -ārēris -ērēris -erēris -īrēris -erēris
3rd -ārētur -ērētur -erētur -īrētur -erētur
1st Pl. -ārēmur -ērēmur -erēmur -īrēmur -erēmur
2nd -ārēminī-ērēminī-erēminī-īrēminī-erēminī
3rd -ārentur-ērentur-erentur-īrentur-erentur

Imperative

The second-person present active singular imperative form takes the infinitive stem only, for instance canere becomes cane or vocāre becomes vocā. These say “Sing!” or “Call!” to a single person. To make these apply to more than one person, one adds a -te like canete = “Sing, all of you!” To make these forms passive, one uses the endings -re (making it look like the present active infinitive) or -minī for singular and plural respectively. (The passive forms are primarily used in the cases of deponent verbs.) There are four exceptions to the present active singular rule, which can be membered by the rhyme “dic, duc, fac, and fer should have an e but it ain’t there.” In other words, dicere actually becomes dic and not ∗dice.